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After this procedure the amendment is signed by the head of the state i.e; the President.Since in India important amendments can be amended through this procedure Hence, Indian Constitution has been rightly called a rigid constitution. The Union List consists of 97 subjects of national importance such as Defence, Railways, Post and Telegraph, etc.
However, in addition to this process, some amendments must be approved by at least 50% of the states.Supremacy of judiciary is another very important feature of a federal state where there is an independent judiciary to interpret the Constitution and to maintain its sanctity.The Supreme Court of India has the original jurisdiction to settle disputes between the Union and the States.As such amendments can only be made by the Union Parliament.All India Services such as IAS and IPS have been created which are kept under the control of the Union.It has been the matter of debate among the scholars that whether the constitution of India is completely federal or unitary in nature.
But actually Indian constitution contains both features of a federal constitution and unitary constitution.In Indian constitution the powers of state and centre are clearly defined and there are very clear limits of both the centre and the state for law making powers. The State List consists of 66 subjects of local interest such as Public Health, Police etc.The Concurrent List has 47 subjects important to both the Union and the State such as Electricity, Trade Union, Economic and Social Planning, etc.The question whether the Indian Constitution could be called a federal constitution troubled the minds of the members of the Constituent Assembly.This question cannot be answered without going into the meaning of federalism and the essential features that are evident in federal state.In a true federation such as that of United State of America every State irrespective of their size in terms of area or population it sends two representatives in the upper House i.e. In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states.