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Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers) for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early.
Biomarkers are widely used as analytical tools to assess biological parameters for a rapid and comprehensive therapeutic analysis.Some difficulties were encountered initially in an attempt to reproduce these cancer-specific serum proteins.With advances in our ability to measure quantitatively, collect standardized samples, and resolve the problems of reduced sensitivity in detection, confidence in the results of this approach has risen (12).Furthermore, African-American men generally are diagnosed with more advanced stages of prostate cancer and at an earlier age (4).Consequently, much effort is being placed on detecting prostate cancer in an early, curable stage to decrease the rate of mortality from this disease.These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer.
The purpose of this review is to examine the current status of prostate cancer biomarkers, with special emphasis on emerging markers, by evaluating their diagnostic and prognostic potentials.
An estimated 27,360 men will die from prostate cancer in 2009 (1). An early observation reports that more than 65% of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over the age of 65 (2).
Compared with the occurrences in the White population, the incidence of prostate cancer is approximately 60% higher in Black men, while native Japanese and Chinese populations have a low risk of incidence and mortality (3).
Both genes and proteins that reveal loss, mutation, or variation in expression between normal prostate and cancerous prostate tissues will be covered in this article.
Along with the discovery of prostate cancer biomarkers, we will describe the criteria used when selecting potential biomarkers for further development towards clinical use.
Along with genetics, social and environmental factors (especially diet and lifestyle) may act as the determining factors, which may explain why some individuals are at higher risk for developing prostate cancer than are others.